DIA – money laundering and criminal infiltration of the Italian legal economy (May, 2nd 2015)

150502-dia-logo.jpg

On February 2015, the DIA – the Italian Anti-Mafia Investigation Department - published its report for the first half 2014 (pdf, 89 M, 256 pp.).
One chapter of the report is devoted to "criminal infiltration of the legal economy" and contains some important information and data on the phenomenon of money laundering in Italy.

5. Criminal infiltration of the legal economy

a. Anti money-laundering

Money-laundering and reinvestment of the proceeds arising from criminal activities continue to pose real economic and social emergencies due to their progressive expansion on a national and international scale.
Money laundering, especially, assumes considerable importance, at the macroeconomic level, because the flow of illicit money into the financial system creates serious distortions of the legal economy by altering the conditions of competition, and this affects the proper functioning of markets and the allocation of resources, with consequences, ultimately, on the stability and efficiency of the economic system.

The fight against money-laundering is essential to safeguard national economic and financial integrity.
The shared strategy to combat money-laundering consists in the prevention and repression of the accumulation of illicit capital and avoiding its “cleanup” through the traceability of money.
The mission of the DIA is also to investigate ML transactions in collaboration with the “Guardia di Finanza”, examining suspicious transaction reports (STRs) sent through the UIF, the Italian FIU (Financial Intelligence Unit) by financial intermediaries, professionals, auditors and other addresses by Legislative Decree no. 231/07.

Suspicious transaction reports (art. 41 of D. Lgs. 21.11.2007, no. 231)

Thanks to the information system "El.IOS" (Elaborazioni Investigative Operazioni Sospette - Suspicious Transactions Investigative Elaboration) [315] in the 1st half of 2014 the DIA analyzed 9,011 STRs.
They are related to 27,265 subjects, 18,635 of which are individuals and 8,630 legal entities.
STRs were submitted only by credit institutions (7526), financial intermediaries (553) and, in part, by electronic money institutions (352), the almost exclusive sources of active collaboration in the Italian AML system.
The STRs contribution by non-financial agents and professionals appears limited probably due to the close relationship between these categories and their clients as well as to an excessive consideration of matters relating to privacy.
The 9,011 STRs correspond to 29 468 financial transactions. The following table indicates the different types detected

Prelevamento contante <15.000 euro

1215

5,00%

Bonifico a favore di ordine e conto

4426

20,00%

Prelevamento con moduli di sportello

3338

15,00%

versamento di contante

3039

14,00%

Bonifico in partenza

2826

13,00%

Bonifico estero

1901

9,00%

Disposizionidi trasferimento

1639

7,00%

Emissione di assegni circolari e titoli sim.

1418

6,00%

Versamento di assegni tratti altro itermed.

1364

6,00%

Addebito per estinzione assegno

1229

5,00%

 tav103.png
(Tav. 103)

 
(Tav. 103)

The following table highlights the macro territorial areas for number of transactions reported in the half year:

Nord

11045

Centro

7860

Sud

7443

Isole

2650

N.d.

470

Totale

29468

tav104.png

(Tav. 104)

The following table indicates, however, for the reports received in the 1st half of 2014, the number of distinct operations by region:

Regione

Segnalazione pervenute

Lazio

4600

Lombardia

4060

Puglia

3617

Emilia Romagna

2532

Toscana

2495

Piemonte

2252

Sicilia

2185

Campania

2090

Veneto

955

Liguria

728

Calabria

616

Abruzzo

517

altro

470

Sardegna

465

Marche

464

Basilicata

396

Friuli Venezia Giulia

354

Umbria

301

Molise

207

Trentino Alto Adige

132

Valle d’Aosta

32

tav105.png

(Tav. 105)

El.IOS reveals that among the 9,011 STRs analyzed in the  first half of 2014, 251 have been further analyzed and investigated.
These 251 STRs forwarded to the competent Operational Centres of the DIA for a more detailed investigation, provided - in the 1st half - a contribution of 18 investigations.
Of these, 9 were launched thanks to the STRs.
The 18 original investigations were reduced, finally, to 6 which allowed the seizure or confiscation of relevant real estate assets.
Simultaneously also international cooperation has benefited from these investigations: in fact following a warning from Europol for an alleged failure of financial flows from abroad to Italy, a monitoring allowed the identification of further 1382 cases requiring analysis and these are on-going coordinated by the National Anti-Mafia Directorate.
Regard the STRs deemed of interest, they are classified by the type of criminal organizations involved in the following table, 'Ndrangheta with 103 STRs appears the most significant.

 

 

Organizzazioni criminali

1° semestre 2014

 

criminalità organizzata pugliese

6

2,39%

camorra

34

13,55%

altre org. Italiane

50

19,92%

cosa nostra

58

23,11%

ndrangheta

103

41,04%

Totale complessivo

251

100,00%

tav106.png

(tav. 106)

 

The exercise of rights of access and assessment of addressees by the obligations Legislative Decree no. 21 November 2007 n. 231

The Anti-Mafia Investigation Department, for its preventive investigations, exercises powers delegated by the Minister of the Interior, on a permanent basis, to the Director of the DIA, relating to:

  • Access and investigations against the persons provided for in Chapter III of Legislative Decree no. 21 November 2007 n. 231 [316];
  • Execution of internal inspections and requesting data and information from legal representatives of companies [317].

The use of such institutions is aimed at preventing the infiltration of mafia crimes into the economy and is implemented by direct entry into the corporate bodies, either through the use of the banking and financial system to launder the proceeds of ' illegal activity, introducing it into the legal circuit.
The exercise of these powers is a preliminary step of a specific judicial investigation and/or aimed at the application of preventive measures.
In the first half of 2014, this activity continued its upward trend, manifesting itself in the issue and subsequent execution of:

  • 1 measure of access to a company operating activities related to gambling and betting, being a person under art. 14 of Legislative Decree no. 231/2007. In the course of this activity information was acquired relating to entities directly or indirectly linked to criminal organizations;
  • Two measures of access and assessment performed at two banks, which led to the acquisition of information and documentation related to financial positions deemed worthy of study because they could be linked to organized crime;
  • 44 requests for data and information from the headquarters of financial intermediaries, related to people probably linked to organized crime, for the purpose of investigation of a financial nature. In the course of this activity documentation was acquired  for five individuals.

Money, goods or illicit origin assets laundering

In this part of the document the data relating to offenses under Article 648-bis (money laundering) and 648-ter (use of money, goods or assets of illicit origin) of criminal code, is discussed and reported by the police to the court during the period under review.
This data relating to criminal cases is not directly linked to suspicious transactions reports but it derives from SDI information system (Sistema di Indagine).
These investigative activities are often long and complex and made even more difficult by the need to show that the author has not committed the alleged offenses or has not contributed to their commission.
Regarding this subject in the first half of 2014 a decline compared to similar periods in the past starting from 1st half of 2012.
This trend should not lead to hasty conclusions because it could be caused by the increasing complexity of the assessment procedures, determined by the increasingly sophisticated methods of money laundering adopted by criminal organizations.
One should not forget that each time law enforcement successfully intercept money-laundering mechanisms, criminal organizations react by changing their strategy.
For this reason it is essential that the State is always ready to react by adapting the legislative tools, methods and techniques.

2°Sem.2011

569

1°Sem.2012

779

2°Sem.2012

750

1°Sem.2013

914

2°Sem.2013

850

1°Sem.2014

626

tav107.png

(tav 107)

The following table shows the number of reported crimes, broken down by region.

Money laundering - nr. crimes reported

 

 

1° Sem. 2014

2° Sem. 2013

1° Sem. 2013

2° Sem. 2012

1°Sem. 2012

2°Sem. 2011

Abruzzo

7

8

6

7

9

5

Basilicata

2

4

3

3

3

8

Calabria

17

22

36

23

23

20

Campania

77

99

92

101

130

70

Emilia Romagna

16

41

49

50

48

29

Friuli Venezia Giulia

9

16

15

13

16

11

Lazio

59

64

86

78

76

64

Liguria

40

66

74

65

66

70

Lombardia

41

89

104

79

93

65

Marc He

4

34

30

19

24

18

Molise

1

3

2

2

4

2

Piemonte

21

51

62

57

69

31

Puglia

51

52

48

56

55

45

Sardegna

16

16

23

14

17

12

Sicilia

47

59

59

55

61

56

Toscana

24

165

148

68

41

26

Trentino Alto Adige

0

5

7

5

4

6

Umbria

1

1

2

4

4

2

Valle D'aosta

1

0

3

1

1

1

Veneto

16

55

65

50

35

28

Regione Ignota

176

0

0

0

0

0

Italia

626

850

914

750

779

569

tav108.png

(tav 108)

In the following tables data in relation to the nationality of the alleged perpetrators of the crime in question (reported / arrested) is highlighted.

 

Italia

1063

Romania

69

Luogo ignoto

69

Altri stati

63

Marocco

23

Albania

11

Moldavia

10

Repubblica Popolare Cinese

9

Ucraina

8

Perù

6

Russia

4

Bosnia ed Erzegovina

4

Tunisia

4

tav109.png

(tav 109)

 

 

Romania

39

9,00%

Italia

296

66,00%

Tunisia

20

4,00%

Marocco

16

4,00%

Luogo ignoto

14

3,00%

Nigeria

8

2,00%

Serbia-Montenegro (ex Jugoslavia)

7

1,00%

Georgia

7

1,00%

Albania

3

1,00%

Ucraina

5

1,00%

Francia

4

1,00%

Altri stati

30

1,00%

tav110.png

(tav 110)

With regard to the crime of art. 648-ter, the following table shows the data at a national level.

 

 

1° Sem. 2014

2° Sem. 2013

1° Sem. 2013

2° Sem. 2012

1°Sem. 2012

2°Sem. 2011

Abruzzo

1

2

3

1

1

0

Basilicata

1

0

1

2

1

1

Calabria

1

3

2

3

0

4

Campania

5

7

14

21

8

10

Emilia Romagna

1

3

2

1

1

1

Friuli Venezia Giulia

1

0

2

21

1

1

Lazio

1

7

6

10

3

6

Liguria

1

5

2

1

2

0

Lombardia

5

7

10

14

16

9

Marche

0

1

1

2

2

2

Molise

1

0

0

1

1

0

Piemonte

3

2

14

4

3

1

Puglia

11

1

3

4

1

2

Sardegna

1

4

1

2

3

0

Sicilia

4

7

3

4

7

1

Toscana

2

2

2

1

3

2

Trentino Alto Adige

0

1

4

1

0

0

Umbria

1

0

1

2

2

1

Valle D'aosta

0

0

0

0

1

0

Veneto

0

3

1

4

1

0

Regione Ignota

5

5

4

0

0

0

Italia

45

60

76

99

57

41

(tav 111)

Below, broken down by nationality, people reported and arrested for the same offense.

 

Italia

103

Luogo ignoto

6

Repubblica Popolare Cinese

3

Perù

2

Russia

2

Romania

2

Senegal

1

Pakistan

1

Albania

1

Egitto

1

Costa d’Avorio

1

tav112.png

 
(tav 112)

 

Italia

74

Germania

1

Romania

1

 tav113.png
(tav 113)

Footnotes

  • 315) Applicativo informatico finalizzato a supportare l’attività della D.I.A. sia nella ricezione, sia nella gestione, ai fini investigativi, del flusso documentale, costantemente in crescita negli ultimi anni, costituito dalle segnalazioni di operazioni sospette
  • 316) Art. 1, c. 4, del D. L. 6 set. 1982, n. 629, convertito in L. 12 ott. 1982, n. 726 e successive modificazioni; Art. unico, c. 3 della L. 7 ago. 1992, n. 356, che riconosce al Min. dell’Interno la facoltà di delega ai Prefetti ed al Dir. della D.I.A. delle competenze già attribuite all’Alto Commissario per il coordinamento della lotta contro la delinquenza mafiosa; Decr. del Min. dell’Interno 23 dic. 1992, 1° c., p. 1), che delega, in via permanente, al Dir. della D.I.A., il potere di accesso e di accertamento nei confronti di banche, istituti di credito pubblici e privati, società fiduciarie o presso ogni altro istituto o società che esercita la raccolta del risparmio o l’intermediazione finanziaria, secondo quanto previsto dall’art. 1, c. 4, del D. L. 629/82 e successive modificazioni; Art. 2, c. 3, della L. 15 lug. 2009, n. 94, che ha modificato l’art. 1, c. 4, del D. L. 629/1982, con il quale si dispone che i predetti poteri di accesso e di accertamento si esercitano anche nei confronti dei soggetti previsti dal capo III del D. Lgs. 21 nov. 2007 n. 231 al fine di verificare se ricorrono pericoli di infiltrazione ma¬fiosa; Art. 2 del Decr. del Min. dell’Interno 30 gen. 2013, che delega, in via permanente, al Direttore della D.I.A., il potere di accesso e di accertamento presso "i soggetti destinatari degli obblighi indicati negli articoli 10, 11, 12, 13 e 14 del D. Lgs. 21 nov. 2007 n. 231";
  • 317)  Art. 1 bis, c. 1 e 4 del D. L. 629/1982, n. 726 e succ. mod.; Decr. del Min. dell’Interno 1° feb. 1994 che delega al Direttore della D.I.A. l’esercizio dei poteri di accesso e accertamento di cui all’art. 1, c. 4 del D. L. 629/82, la facoltà di richiedere ai funzionari responsabili degli enti e degli istituti di cui al punto 1) del decr. Min. predetto, dati e informazioni su atti e documenti in loro possesso ed ogni notizia ritenuta utile ai fini dell’espletamento delle funzioni conferite, ex-art. 1 bis D.L. 629/82 e successive modificazioni.

AML in Italy series

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(image from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Money-laundering.svg)